Environmental Impact Assessment
An Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) is an assessment and evaluation of the environmental impact of a proposed investment project.
An EIA "aims to predict environmental impacts at an early stage in project planning and design, find ways and means to reduce adverse impacts, shape projects to suit the local environment and present the predictions and options to decision-makers."
Source: Convention on Biological Diversity: What is Impact Assessment
See the Environmental Impact Assessment Open Education Resource for more information on EIAs.
Also see the EIA Law Matrix which analyzes more than 50 aspects of EIA laws around the world.