Tools & Resources

Tools and resources to assist government officials, parliamentarians and policy makers in the planning, preparation for, negotiation, monitoring, and implementation of large-scale investments

Mining and Critical Ecosystems: Mapping the Risks Go to resource

Guidelines for assessing the viability of a project in environmentally or socially vulnerable areas that can help governments determine “no-go” areas for mining. It offers a general framework that can be used to identify risk areas globally and two case studies.

Mining Community Development Agreements Source Book Go to resource

  • Date:  2012
  • Sector:  Extractive Industries Mining
  • Source:  The World Bank

Community Development Agreements (CDA) between mining companies and impacted local communities have played a valuable role in meeting the expectations and needs of a broad range of stakeholders. Given the current status of CDAs, there is a need to extract from current practice the key building blocks for successful community development. To address this need World Bank's Oil, Gas and Mining Unit launched a project to review and analyze the global experience in community development agreements (voluntary or regulated) with the objective to develop a methodology through which the approach to mining community development could be improved and the results measured on the ground. This Source Book is aimed to make a contribution to the understanding of mining and community issues and to have a measurable impact on the ground as an applicable tool. 

Mining Contracts: How to Read and Understand Them Go to resource

A book created to highlight strong contract clauses and explore how others could be improved. It goes beyond legal considerations to explore the policy questions and company interests underlying contract provisions—issues that are crucial for understanding and negotiating contracts, and for monitoring their enforcement.

Available in English and French

Mining Royalties: A Global Study of their Impact on Investors, Government and Civil Society Go to resource

  • Date:  2006
  • Sector:  Extractive Industries Mining
  • Source:  World Bank

A comprehensive reference on mineral resource taxation. The report discusses the history of royalties and the types currently in use, covering key practical issues such as tax administration, revenue distribution and reporting.

It identifies the strengths and weaknesses of various tax approaches, including the economic impact of these approaches on production decisions and mine economics, and the effect of royalty taxes on the investment climate, civil society and markets.

Mining Royalties: A Global Study of their Impact on Investors, Government, and Civil Society Go to resource

  • Date:  2006
  • Sector:  Extractive Industries Mining
  • Source:  World Bank

This guide focuses on information and analysis relating to mineral royalties. It provides a general discussion of the concepts behind mining taxation, a guide to royalties, examples of royalty calculations and the ways in which these interact with other forms of taxation, as well as financial effects on investments under varying conditions.

The guide also includes examples of royalty legislation from over forty nations. It discusses implications for investors and governments of various tax regimes and provides specific country case examples.

A chapter is included on transparency, governance, and management of revenue streams.

The appendices contain brief summaries and selected statutes relating to royalties in a broad cross-section of nations around the world, sample spreadsheets of the results of mine models that were analyzed and examples of administrative and distributional approaches to collecting royalties. 

Available in Arabic, Chinese, English, French, Spanish, and Russian

Miongozo ya Utawala Bora katika Wazalishaji wa Kujitokeza wa Mafuta na Gesi 2016 [Guidelines for Good Governance in Emerging Oil and Gas Producers, 2016 - Swahili version] Go to resource

  • Date:  2016
  • Sector:  Extractive Industries Oil & Gas
  • Source:  Chatham House

2016 Mwongozo, uliotayarishwa chini ya Uangalizi wa Kikundi cha Majadiliano cha Wazalishaji Wapya wa Mafuta, urekebishaji wa changamoto za kawaida zinazokabili Mataifa zalishaji yanayoibuka yaliyo katika awamu ya utafutaji, uvumbuzi wa hivi majuzi na uzalishaji wa mapema. Yafuatayo ni mapendekezo pana ya ule Mwongozo ya kubabiliana na changamoto hizi.

Zingatia malengo Mwongozo huu umeundwa kutokana na malengo yaliyoorodheshwa hapa chini. Serikali lazima ziwe na mtazamo wazi wa umuhimu wa kila lengo. Lengo la 1 ambalo linahusu ono la taifa linafaa kuimarisha yale malengo mengine. Malengo muhimu ya sekta ya petroli:

Lengo la 1: Fafanua maono ya kimkakati ya sekta

Lengo la 2: Vutia wawekezaji waliohitimu zaidi kwa muda mrefu

Lengo la 3: Fikia upeo wa juu zaidi wa faida za kiuchumi kwa taifa kupitia kutoa leseni

Lengo la 4: Kupata na kudumisha imani ya umma na kusimamia matarajio ya umma

Lengo la 5: Zidisha maudhui ya kienyeji na faida kwa uchumi mpana zaidi

Lengo la 6: Jenga mashirika ya kitaifa yaliyo na uwezo ya kushiriki na kusimamia ukuzaji wa rasilimali

Lengo la 7: Zidisha uwajibikaji

Lengo la 8: Linda mazingira Kwa kila lengo, Mwongozo huu unajadili changamoto maalum zinazohusiana na mazingira ya kitaifa ambayo wazalishaji wengi wanaoibuka wanakumbana nazo. Kote katika waraka huu wazalishaji wanaoshiriki katika mradi huu wanatoa ‘mafunzo waliyojifunza’.

Model Bilateral Investment Treaty - United States Go to resource

  • Date:  2012
  • Sector:  Investment Treaties

Model Bilateral Investment Treaty Template - Southern African Development Community (SADC) Go to resource

  • Date:  2012
  • Sector:  Investment Treaties
  • Source: 

The SADC Model BIT Template provides advice to governments for future negotiations of investment treaties. The template reflects the objective of relating FDI to sustainable development. It contains various examples of provisions to address sustainable development concerns with commentaries. In particular, in includes a section dedicated to obligations of investors that covers anti-corruption, compliance with domestic law, environmental assessment and management, human rights, social and economic development issues and corporate governance – as well as reference to their enforcement. It also includes provisions to preserve the state right to regulate and the right to pursue development goals.

Model Bilaterial Investment Treaty - Canada Go to resource

  • Date:  2004
  • Sector:  Investment Treaties

Model Bilaterial Investment Treaty - Columbia Go to resource

  • Date:  2007
  • Sector:  Investment Treaties

Model Bilaterial Investment Treaty - Norway Go to resource

  • Date:  2007
  • Sector:  Investment Treaties

Model Mining Development Agreement 1.0 Go to resource

MMDA 1.0 is a collection of examples from existing mine development agreements and other materials that are designed to help negotiators and drafters by stimulating them to think about some of the difficult issues of legality, fairness, and balance presented by large foreign natural resource investment, particularly in developing countries. On one hand, MMDA 1.0 may be useful as an agenda for negotiating such an investment. On the other hand, MMDA 1.0 may be useful to the lawyers tasked with drafting an agreement for such an investment.

Available in English, French, Portuguese, Russian and Spanish.

Monitoring the Value of Mineral Exports: Policy Options for Governments Go to resource

  • Date:  2018
  • Sector:  Extractive Industries Mining
  • Source:  IGF, OECD

The practice note aims to increase policy-makers’ knowledge of the process of determining the value of exported minerals. The focus is determining the value (or quality) of mineral exports, not the quantity. While there is a risk that companies may underestimate both, verifying the value of minerals is more complex and requires more technical expertise. Additionally, most governments have some measures in place to verify quantity—for example, draft surveys to calculate the weight of a ship carrying minerals for export—whereas the skills, expertise and facilities to monitor mineral value are lacking.


Having laid the foundation, the practice note sets out three main policy options for improving government oversight of mineral product export valuation (hereinafter referred to as “export valuation”). These are: direct measurement of mineral value, monitoring companies’ own mineral export valuation processes and a hybrid approach. The goal is that policy-makers will be equipped to make informed, risk-based decisions on how best to monitor the value of mineral exports.

Multilateral Convention to Implement Tax Treaty Related Measures to Prevent Base Erosion and Profit Shifting Go to resource

  • Date:  2016
  • Sector:  Investment
  • Source:  OECD

The Multilateral Convention to Implement Tax Treaty Related Measures to Prevent Base Erosion and Profit Shifting (the Convention) is one of the outcomes of the OECD/G20 Project to tackle Base Erosion and Profit Shifting, i.e. tax planning strategies that exploit gaps and mismatches in tax rules to artificially shift profits to low or no-tax locations where there is little or no economic activity, resulting in little or no overall corporate tax being paid.

The Convention offers concrete solutions for governments to close the gaps in existing international tax rules by transposing results from the OECD/G20 Project to tack Base Erosion and Profit Shifting into bilateral tax treaties worldwide. The Convention modifies the application of thousands of bilateral tax treaties concluded to eliminate double taxation. It also implements agreed minimum standards to counter treaty abuse and to improve dispute resolution mechanisms while providing flexibility to accommodate specific tax treaty policies. 

National Strategies for Sustainable Development Go to resource

  • Date:  2004
  • Sector:  Investment
  • Source:  IISD

A report that seeks to identify key challenges facing countries in relation to the strategic management aspects of national development strategies in 19 countries including leadership, planning, implementation, monitoring and review, co-ordination, and participation.

It also includes a pragmatic toolbox for government sustainable development managers and policy-makers.

Natural Resource Charter Go to resource

The Natural Resource Charter is a set of principles to guide governments and societies’ use of natural resources so these economic opportunities result in maximum and sustained returns for a country’s citizens. The Charter outlines tools and policy options designed to avoid the mismanagement of these natural diminishing riches and work towards ensuring their ongoing benefits.

Available in Arabic, Bahasa, English, French, and Spanish.

Natural Resource Charter Benchmarking Framework Go to resource

The Natural Resource Charter Benchmarking Framework is a tool for benchmarking a country's management of oil, gas and minerals against global best practices. The framework draws on the policy options and practical advice of the Natural Resource Charter, and consists of a series of questions that government officials, concerned citizens or actors in the international community can use to structure research, discussions and strategic planning. 

Natural Resource Contracts as a Tool for Managing the Mining Sector Go to resource

This study examines the different types of legal regimes governing mining projects in 18 countries around the world with a particular emphasis on the key provisions in mining contracts as well as in law where countries have adopted a licensing regime. In so doing, it discusses some of the reasons for which some countries have adopted a licensing regime to fully or partially regulate the rights and obligations of the parties in a mining project, whereas other countries have opted to use mining contracts to do so. Where a country relies on contracts to govern some or all aspects of a mining project, the study further examines the relationship between country's mining contracts and its legal framework, taking into account the trend - towards more legislated terms - that minerals regimes are taking. In addition, it analyzes the mining contract negotiation and implementation process and attempts to identify potential opportunities to support resource-rich, low-income countries in managing their mining investments from the planning and preparation for a contract negotiation or licensing round to the implementation and monitoring of the mining investment.

Natural Resource Contracts: A Practical Guide Go to resource

The goal of this guide is to explain common topics that are addressed in natural resource contracts and to provide suggestions for improving contracts that are vague or unfavorable to host countries.

The guide also includes references to additional resources that will be useful for advocates who want to learn more about particular topics and issues.

Natural Resource Governance Institute Training Modules on the EITI Go to resource

Training kit consisting of a set of modules that cover the whole EITI process from implementation to monitoring and compliance.

Navigator to Support Economic Diversification: Instruments for Resource-Rich Developing Countries Go to resource

  • Date:  2017
  • Sector:  Extractive Industries
  • Source: 

The Navigator presented here navigates the user through relevant instruments to promote diversification of resource-rich economies. It presents instruments (initiatives, tools and good practices) and at the same time takes into account different types of economic linkages. By using the Navigator, representatives of partner governments and stakeholders from the private sector and development cooperation can identify instruments relevant for the respective context and find information about their application in the form of short descriptions, tables, diagrams and case studies.

New Alliance Analytical Framework for Responsible Land-Based Agricultural Investments Go to resource

This analytical framework is designed to assist investors in aligning their policies and actions with global and continental guidelines on responsible land-based investments, most notably the Voluntary Guidelines on the Responsible Governance of Tenure of Land, Fisheries and Forests in the Context of National Food Security (VGGT) and the Guiding Principles on Large Scale Land Based Investments in Africa (LSLBI). 

The Framework offers investors a due diligence and risk management resource to apply to their land-based agricultural investments. It is an effort to provide advice and highlight best practices related to structuring investments in the most responsible way possible.

The Framework includes red lines that indicate in which situations investment projects should be cancelled if no benign alternatives can be found. 

The Framework should be used throughout the life of the project, beginning with the preliminary project assessment, followed by the due diligence phase and continuing through the negotiation, agreement, operation and close-out phases. Hence, while the Framework ideally should be used from the beginning of a project, it can also be used after a project has commenced, as land tenure risks can and should be assessed well beyond the due diligence and start-up periods, especially in areas where communities have insecure land rights.

The Framework was developed by an international group of land experts and vetted through consultation with a broad array of stakeholders. The New Alliance and Grow Africa Leadership Council welcomed and recognized the Analytical Framework as a tool for investors, and agreed to assess experience with the framework in one year.

NPV model to analyze PSAs/PSCs or Concessionary Arrangements Go to resource

The website offers an economic model that estimates expected cash flows for an upstream petroleum project (petroleum exploration, development and production). Host governments can use it to increase their understanding of the revenue they can expect from the project at each stage.

NRGI Guide to the EITI Standard Go to resource

The guide is an online, interactive reference that allows users to explore the opportunities in the EITI Standard in seven policy areas. These areas are based on the extractive industries decision chain and reflect some of the governance challenges most frequently raised by stakeholders. The guide also covers two process areas: civil society participation and multi-stakeholder group governance.

NRGI Reader | Contract Transparency: Creating Conditions To Improve Contract Quality Go to resource

This reader comes from a series of 20 short, illustrated overviews of key topics in the extractives sector. Together they serve as a robust introduction for the lay reader to fundamental issues and concepts in oil, gas and mining sector governance. They contain helpful figures and infographics, and each reader has a standard format: key messages, concepts, case examples, and a final set of practitioner-orientated questions to ask.

NRGI Reader | Extractives-Linked Infrastructure: Exploring Options for Shared Use of Infrastructure Projects Go to resource

This reader comes from a series of 20 short, illustrated overviews of key topics in the extractives sector. Together they serve as a robust introduction for the lay reader to fundamental issues and concepts in oil, gas and mining sector governance. They contain helpful figures and infographics, and each reader has a standard format: key messages, concepts, case examples, and a final set of practitioner-orientated questions to ask.

NRGI Reader | Fiscal Regime Design: What Revenues the Government Will be Entitled to Collect Go to resource

This reader comes from a series of 20 short, illustrated overviews of key topics in the extractives sector. Together they serve as a robust introduction for the lay reader to fundamental issues and concepts in oil, gas and mining sector governance. They contain helpful figures and infographics, and each reader has a standard format: key messages, concepts, case examples, and a final set of practitioner-orientated questions to ask.

NRGI Reader | Fiscal Rules and Natural Resource Funds: Methods to Save and Stabilize Revenues Go to resource

This reader comes from a series of 20 short, illustrated overviews of key topics in the extractives sector. Together they serve as a robust introduction for the lay reader to fundamental issues and concepts in oil, gas and mining sector governance. They contain helpful figures and infographics, and each reader has a standard format: key messages, concepts, case examples, and a final set of practitioner-orientated questions to ask.

NRGI Reader | Granting Rights to Natural Resources: Determining Who Takes Natural Resources Out of the Ground Go to resource

This reader comes from a series of 20 short, illustrated overviews of key topics in the extractives sector. Together they serve as a robust introduction for the lay reader to fundamental issues and concepts in oil, gas and mining sector governance. They contain helpful figures and infographics, and each reader has a standard format: key messages, concepts, case examples, and a final set of practitioner-orientated questions to ask.

NRGI Reader | Legal Framework: Navigating the Web of Laws and Contracts Governing Extractive Industries Go to resource

This reader comes from a series of 20 short, illustrated overviews of key topics in the extractives sector. Together they serve as a robust introduction for the lay reader to fundamental issues and concepts in oil, gas and mining sector governance. They contain helpful figures and infographics, and each reader has a standard format: key messages, concepts, case examples, and a final set of practitioner-orientated questions to ask.

NRGI Reader | Local Content: Strengthening the Local Economy and Workforce Go to resource

This reader comes from a series of 20 short, illustrated overviews of key topics in the extractives sector. Together they serve as a robust introduction for the lay reader to fundamental issues and concepts in oil, gas and mining sector governance. They contain helpful figures and infographics, and each reader has a standard format: key messages, concepts, case examples, and a final set of practitioner-orientated questions to ask.

NRGI Reader | Publish What You Pay: A Civil Society Coalition for Extractive Sector Transparency and Accountability Go to resource

This reader comes from a series of 20 short, illustrated overviews of key topics in the extractives sector. Together they serve as a robust introduction for the lay reader to fundamental issues and concepts in oil, gas and mining sector governance. They contain helpful figures and infographics, and each reader has a standard format: key messages, concepts, case examples, and a final set of practitioner-orientated questions to ask.

NRGI Reader | Revenue Management and Distribution: Addressing the Special Challenges of Resource Revenues To Generate Lasting Benefits Go to resource

This reader comes from a series of 20 short, illustrated overviews of key topics in the extractives sector. Together they serve as a robust introduction for the lay reader to fundamental issues and concepts in oil, gas and mining sector governance. They contain helpful figures and infographics, and each reader has a standard format: key messages, concepts, case examples, and a final set of practitioner-orientated questions to ask.

NRGI Reader | State Participation and State-Owned Enterprises Roles, Benefits and Challenges Go to resource

This reader comes from a series of 20 short, illustrated overviews of key topics in the extractives sector. Together they serve as a robust introduction for the lay reader to fundamental issues and concepts in oil, gas and mining sector governance. They contain helpful figures and infographics, and each reader has a standard format: key messages, concepts, case examples, and a final set of practitioner-orientated questions to ask.

NRGI Reader | Subnational Revenue Distribution: Natural Resource Revenues in a Decentralized Context Go to resource

This reader comes from a series of 20 short, illustrated overviews of key topics in the extractives sector. Together they serve as a robust introduction for the lay reader to fundamental issues and concepts in oil, gas and mining sector governance. They contain helpful figures and infographics, and each reader has a standard format: key messages, concepts, case examples, and a final set of practitioner-orientated questions to ask.

NRGI Reader | Subnational Revenue Management: Improving Local Development Through Resource Wealth Go to resource

This reader comes from a series of 20 short, illustrated overviews of key topics in the extractives sector. Together they serve as a robust introduction for the lay reader to fundamental issues and concepts in oil, gas and mining sector governance. They contain helpful figures and infographics, and each reader has a standard format: key messages, concepts, case examples, and a final set of practitioner-orientated questions to ask.

NRGI Reader | The Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative (EITI): Using EITI to Promote Policy Reform Go to resource

This reader comes from a series of 20 short, illustrated overviews of key topics in the extractives sector. Together they serve as a robust introduction for the lay reader to fundamental issues and concepts in oil, gas and mining sector governance. They contain helpful figures and infographics, and each reader has a standard format: key messages, concepts, case examples, and a final set of practitioner-orientated questions to ask.

NRGI Reader | The Natural Resource Charter Decision Chain: Converting Resources into Development Go to resource

This reader comes from a series of 20 short, illustrated overviews of key topics in the extractives sector. Together they serve as a robust introduction for the lay reader to fundamental issues and concepts in oil, gas and mining sector governance. They contain helpful figures and infographics, and each reader has a standard format: key messages, concepts, case examples, and a final set of practitioner-orientated questions to ask.

NRGI Reader | The Oil and Gas Industry: Overview and Trends Go to resource

This reader comes from a series of 20 short, illustrated overviews of key topics in the extractives sector. Together they serve as a robust introduction for the lay reader to fundamental issues and concepts in oil, gas and mining sector governance. They contain helpful figures and infographics, and each reader has a standard format: key messages, concepts, case examples, and a final set of practitioner-orientated questions to ask.

NRGI Reader | The Resource Curse: The Political and Economic Challenges of Natural Resource Wealth Go to resource

This reader comes from a series of 20 short, illustrated overviews of key topics in the extractives sector. Together they serve as a robust introduction for the lay reader to fundamental issues and concepts in oil, gas and mining sector governance. They contain helpful figures and infographics, and each reader has a standard format: key messages, concepts, case examples, and a final set of practitioner-orientated questions to ask.

Pages